Random Machine

Random Machine Random Machine

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Random Machine

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Random Machine Video

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For example, you can use this for: Who should start? Who should do the dishes? But he does not discuss "indirection" or the RAM model per se. From the references in Hartmanis it appears that Cook in his lecture notes while at UC Berkeley, has firmed up the notion of indirect addressing.

For this to work, in general, the unbounded register requires an ability to be cleared and then incremented and, possibly, decremented by a potentially infinite loop.

The pointer register is exactly like any other register with one exception: under the circumstances called "indirect addressing" it provides its contents, rather than the address-operand in the state machine's TABLE, to be the address of the target register including possibly itself!

Such a "bounded indirection" is a laborious, tedious affair. Thus the definition by cases starts from e. To be Turing equivalent the counter machine needs to either use the unfortunate single-register Minsky Gödel number method, or be augmented with an ability to explore the ends of its register string, ad infinitum if necessary.

A failure to find something "out there" defines what it means for an algorithm to fail to terminate; cf Kleene pp. See more on this in the example below.

For unbounded indirection we require a "hardware" change in our machine model. Once we make this change the model is no longer a counter machine, but rather a random-access machine.

Now when e. INC is specified, the finite state machine's instruction will have to specify where the address of the register of interest will come from.

This where can be either i the state machine's instruction that provides an explicit label , or ii the pointer-register whose contents is the address of interest.

This "mutually exclusive but exhaustive choice" is yet another example of "definition by cases", and the arithmetic equivalent shown in the example below is derived from the definition in Kleene p.

Probably the most useful of the added instructions is COPY. In a similar manner every three-register instruction that involves two source registers r s1 r s2 and a destination register r d will result in 8 varieties, for example the addition:.

If we designate one register to be the "accumulator" see below and place strong restrictions on the various instructions allowed then we can greatly reduce the plethora of direct and indirect operations.

However, one must be sure that the resulting reduced instruction-set is sufficient, and we must be aware that the reduction will come at the expense of more instructions per "significant" operation.

Historical convention dedicates a register to the accumulator, an "arithmetic organ" that literally accumulates its number during a sequence of arithmetic operations:.

However, the accumulator comes at the expense of more instructions per arithmetic "operation", in particular with respect to what are called 'read-modify-write' instructions such as "Increment indirectly the contents of the register pointed to by register r2 ".

If we stick with a specific name for the accumulator, e. However, when we write the CPY instructions without the accumulator called out the instructions are ambiguous or they must have empty parameters:.

Historically what has happened is these two CPY instructions have received distinctive names; however, no convention exists.

Tradition e. The typical accumulator-based model will have all its two-variable arithmetic and constant operations e. The one-variable operations e.

Both instruction-types deposit the result e. If we so choose, we can abbreviate the mnemonics because at least one source-register and the destination register is always the accumulator A.

If our model has an unbounded accumulator can we bound all the other registers? Not until we provide for at least one unbounded register from which we derive our indirect addresses.

Another approach Schönhage does this too is to declare a specific register the "indirect address register" and confine indirection relative to this register Schonhage's RAM0 model uses both A and N registers for indirect as well as direct instructions.

Again we can shrink the instruction to a single-parameter that provides for direction and indirection, for example. Posing as minimalists, we reduce all the registers excepting the accumulator A and indirection register N e.

These will do nothing but hold very- bounded numbers e. Likewise we shrink the accumulator to a single bit. In the section above we informally showed that a RAM with an unbounded indirection capability produces a Post—Turing machine.

We give here a slightly more formal demonstration. Begin by designing our model with three reserved registers "E", "P", and "N", plus an unbounded set of registers 1, 2, The registers 1, 2, Register "N" points to "the scanned square" that "the head" is currently observing.

As we decrement or increment "N" the apparent head will "move left" or "right" along the squares. The following table both defines the Post-Turing instructions in terms of their RAM equivalent instructions and gives an example of their functioning.

The apparent location of the head along the tape of registers r0-r5. Throughout this demonstration we have to keep in mind that the instructions in the finite state machine's TABLE is bounded , i.

We begin with a number in register q that represents the address of the target register. But what is this number? If the CASE could continue ad infinitum it would be the mu operator.

Schönhage describes a very primitive, atomized model chosen for his proof of the equivalence of his SMM pointer machine model:. RAM1 model : Schönhage demonstrates how his construction can be used to form the more common, usable form of "successor"-like RAM using this article's mnemonics :.

RAM0 model : Schönhage's RAM0 machine has 6 instructions indicated by a single letter the 6th "C xxx" seems to involve 'skip over next parameter'.

Schönhage designated the accumulator with "z", "N" with "n", etc. Rather than Schönhage's mnemonics we will use the mnemonics developed above.

The definitional fact that any sort of counter machine without an unbounded register-"address" register must specify a register "r" by name indicates that the model requires "r" to be finite , although it is "unbounded" in the sense that the model implies no upper limit to the number of registers necessary to do its job s.

We can escape this restriction by providing an unbounded register to provide the address of the register that specifies an indirect address.

With a few exceptions, these references are the same as those at Register machine. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Remove name from list of names after drawing winner. Split names by space. Filter duplicate names. Contest title:. Contest intro text:. Winners Name Picker First enter your list of names and click the "pick a random name" button to choose a winner.

Pick again. About Name Picker Name Picker is the free website for all your social and easy-to-use online tools. Share Tool. Follow Name Picker Facebook Instagram.

Awesome websites Comment Picker Random Generator. Random Name Picker Name Picker is an online tool where you can quickly pick a random name from a list of names.

For example, you can use this for: Who should start? Who should do the dishes? Who should clean the room Who is the winner of my Facebook giveaway?

Who is the winner of my Instagram raffle or contest? Which baby name should I pick? Pick a winner for my Twitter competitions It can also be used by teachers in the classroom to randomly select: Which student has to give the correct answer?

Which student has to be in which group for activities? How to generate a random number? In the following one must remember that these models are abstract models with two fundamental differences from anything physically real: unbounded numbers of registers each with unbounded capacities.

The problem appears most dramatically when one tries to use a counter-machine model to build a RASP that is Turing equivalent and thus compute any partial mu recursive function :.

So how do we address a register beyond the bounds of the finite state machine? One approach would be to modify the program -instructions the ones stored in the registers so that they contain more than one command.

But this too can be exhausted unless an instruction is of potentially unbounded size. This is how Minsky solves the problem, but the Gödel numbering he uses represents a great inconvenience to the model, and the result is nothing at all like our intuitive notion of a "stored program computer".

Elgot and Robinson come to a similar conclusion with respect to a RASP that is "finitely determined". Indeed it can access an unbounded number of registers e.

In the context of a more computer-like model using his RPT repeat instruction Minsky tantalizes us with a solution to the problem cf p. He asserts:.

But he does not discuss "indirection" or the RAM model per se. From the references in Hartmanis it appears that Cook in his lecture notes while at UC Berkeley, has firmed up the notion of indirect addressing.

For this to work, in general, the unbounded register requires an ability to be cleared and then incremented and, possibly, decremented by a potentially infinite loop.

The pointer register is exactly like any other register with one exception: under the circumstances called "indirect addressing" it provides its contents, rather than the address-operand in the state machine's TABLE, to be the address of the target register including possibly itself!

Such a "bounded indirection" is a laborious, tedious affair. Thus the definition by cases starts from e. To be Turing equivalent the counter machine needs to either use the unfortunate single-register Minsky Gödel number method, or be augmented with an ability to explore the ends of its register string, ad infinitum if necessary.

A failure to find something "out there" defines what it means for an algorithm to fail to terminate; cf Kleene pp.

See more on this in the example below. For unbounded indirection we require a "hardware" change in our machine model. Once we make this change the model is no longer a counter machine, but rather a random-access machine.

Now when e. INC is specified, the finite state machine's instruction will have to specify where the address of the register of interest will come from.

This where can be either i the state machine's instruction that provides an explicit label , or ii the pointer-register whose contents is the address of interest.

This "mutually exclusive but exhaustive choice" is yet another example of "definition by cases", and the arithmetic equivalent shown in the example below is derived from the definition in Kleene p.

Probably the most useful of the added instructions is COPY. In a similar manner every three-register instruction that involves two source registers r s1 r s2 and a destination register r d will result in 8 varieties, for example the addition:.

If we designate one register to be the "accumulator" see below and place strong restrictions on the various instructions allowed then we can greatly reduce the plethora of direct and indirect operations.

However, one must be sure that the resulting reduced instruction-set is sufficient, and we must be aware that the reduction will come at the expense of more instructions per "significant" operation.

Historical convention dedicates a register to the accumulator, an "arithmetic organ" that literally accumulates its number during a sequence of arithmetic operations:.

However, the accumulator comes at the expense of more instructions per arithmetic "operation", in particular with respect to what are called 'read-modify-write' instructions such as "Increment indirectly the contents of the register pointed to by register r2 ".

If we stick with a specific name for the accumulator, e. However, when we write the CPY instructions without the accumulator called out the instructions are ambiguous or they must have empty parameters:.

Historically what has happened is these two CPY instructions have received distinctive names; however, no convention exists. Tradition e. The typical accumulator-based model will have all its two-variable arithmetic and constant operations e.

The one-variable operations e. Both instruction-types deposit the result e. However, assuming the generator was seeded with sufficient entropy and the algorithms have the needed properties, such generators will not quickly reveal significant amounts of their internal state, meaning that you would need a huge amount of output before you can mount a successful attack on them.

A hardware RNG is based on unpredictable physical phenomenon, referred to as "entropy source". Radioactive decay , or more precisely the points in time at which a radioactive source decays is a phenomenon as close to randomness as we know, while decaying particles are easy to detect.

Another example is heat variation - some Intel CPUs have a detector for thermal noise in the silicon of the chip that outputs random numbers.

Hardware RNGs are, however, often biased and, more importantly, limited in their capacity to generate sufficient entropy in practical spans of time, due to the low variability of the natural phenomenon sampled.

When the entropy is sufficient, it behaves as a TRNG. If you'd like to cite this online calculator resource and information as provided on the page, you can use the following citation: Georgiev G.

Calculators Converters Randomizers Articles Search. How many numbers? Get Random Number. Generation result Random number 2.

Share calculator:. Embed this tool! How to pick a random number between two numbers? Where are random numbers useful? Generating a random number There is a philosophical question about what exactly "random" is , but its defining characteristic is surely unpredictability.

Interrupt events from USB and other device drivers System values such as MAC addresses, serial numbers and Real Time Clock - used only to initialize the input pool, mostly on embedded systems.

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